Day 2 :
- Infectious Diseases | Parasitology | Bacterial Diseases | Bacterial Clinical studies | Bacterial Pathogenesis
Location: Atrium Restaurant
KIBI International University, Japan
Title: Roles of matricellular proteins in host response dynamics in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
Time : 09:30-10:00
Toshio Hattori has his expertise in understanding the immune-pathology of various infectious diseases through matricellular proteins. He has analyzed various infectious disease using two representative MCPs such as Gal-9 and OPN.
Statement of the Problem: Elevated matricellular proteins (MCPs) including osteopontin (OPN) and galectin-9 (Gal-9) were observed in the plasma of patients with Manila-type tuberculosis (TB) in previous study. MCPs interact with variety receptors, proteases and pathogens and can modulate innate and adaptive immune system that affects the pathology of infectious diseases. The purpose of this study is quantification of plasma OPN, Gal-9 and soluble CD44 (sCD44) by ELISAs and other 29 cytokines by Luminex assay. We also studied a TB patient pleural effusion to understand their role in local immune responses.
Materials & Methods: 36 patients with pulmonary TB, six subjects with latent tuberculosis (LTBI) and 19 healthy controls (HCs) from Japan. Pleural effusion from a patient was also analyzed. EDTA plasma was used for their analysis. Mononuclear cells from heparinized blood were used for ELISPOT assay.
Findings: The levels of OPN, Gal-9 and sCD44 were higher in TB (positivity 61.1%, 66.7% and 63.9%, respectively) than in the HCs. Negative correlations between OPN and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response, between chest X-ray severity score of cavitary TB and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response were observed. Compared to plasma, pleural fluid had increased levels of IFN-g (1.6 vs. 55.5 pg/mL), IL-10, IL-12p40, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Gal-9 (3.0 vs. 936.0 pg/mL), respectively.
Conclusion & Significance: It was speculated that increased migration of lymphocytes toward the TB lesion in response to OPN signaling. A very high Gal-9 levels was found in pleural effusion and their permeability effect was proposed. These findings suggest that MCPs play fundamental roles in host response dynamics during TB infection.
Maulana Azad Medical College-Lok Nayak Hospital, India
Time : 10:00-10:30
Kanupriya Kusumakar is currently pursuing her MD in Microbiology from Maulana Azad Medical College, a premier institute under the University of Delhi in India. She has completed her MBBS from Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute in Bengaluru, India with a Gold Medal in Community Medicine. She is actively involved in various academic and research work at her institute and in teaching medical undergraduates.
Statement of the Problem: Urogenital infection can play an important role in the etiology of infertility. Such infections may often go unnoticed but could hamper infertility. These infections may affect fertility in several ways: By damaging sperm, hampering their motility, altering the chemical composition of the seminal fluid or by producing an inflammatory structure in the tract. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial isolates by conventional methods in patients attending infertility clinic.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A total of 250 semen samples and 150 cervical samples were examined. The samples were inoculated on blood agar plates containing 5% sheep blood agar and MacConkey’s agar plates. The plates were incubated at 37 oC with 5% CO2 for 24 hours and examined. Biochemical tests were used for identification and confirmation of the bacterial isolates.
Findings: In our study, bacterial isolates were seen in 112 (44.8%) of the 250 semen samples and 77 (51.33%) of 150 cervical samples examined. The major organisms isolated from semen samples were Pseudomonas sp. 41/250 (16.4%), Escherichia coli 29/250 (11.6%) and Staphylococcus sp. 24/250 (9.6%). The main organisms isolated from cervical samples were Escherichia coli 12/150 (8.00%), Klebsiella sp. 9/150 (6.00%) and Acinetobacter sp. 3/150 (2.00%).
Conclusion & Significance: It is necessary to determine not just the presence of bacteria but also their nature as well as numbers while evaluating an infertile patient. It would be worthwhile to screen routinely all patients for a possible silent urogenital tract infection attending infertility clinic and vigorously institute appropriate antibacterial therapy wherever indicated by significant culture.
Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Ethiopia
Title: Performance evaluation of malaria microscopists working at malaria slides rechecking laboratories for external quality assessment in Ethiopia
Time : 10:50-11:20
Abnet Abebe has his expertise Evaluation of malaria. He belong to Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Ethiopia. His research work includes Microscopic diagnosis and evaluation of malaria
Background: Microscopic diagnosis of Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films by skilled microscopists has remained the standard laboratory method for the diagnosis of malaria. The performance of malaria microscopists in all health facilities have been raised concerns by many experts. Microscopists who are working at malaria rechecking laboratories have to be competent to cross check blood film slides which are collected from testing sites.
Objective: The current study aims to assess the performance of malaria microscopists who is working at malaria EQA rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia from February to May, 2015.
Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess the performance of 107 malaria microscopists who are working at 23 malaria rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia. A set of 12 blood film slides containing known negative and positive (different species, stage, and parasite density) results were distributed to each malaria microscopists. Data was collected and entered into Microsoft Excel sheets and exported to software SPSS version 20 for analysis. Chi-square (for categorical data), sensitivity, specificity, percent agreement and kappa score were calculated to assess laboratory professionals’ performance in detecting and identification of Plasmodium species using light microscopy. Association was taken as significant at P<0.05.
Result: A total of 107 study participants were involved in this study, the mean age of the participants was 30±5.04 years and most of them 54 (50.5%) were working at regional reference laboratories. Overall, the sensitivity of participants in detection and species identification of malaria parasites were 96.8% and 56.7%, respectively. The overall agreement on detection and identification of malaria species was 96.8% (Kappa=0.9) and 64.77% (kappa=0.33), respectively. About 34 (31.8%) participants were used unrecommended quantification (+) system. The least malaria species which were identified correctly by the participants were P. malaria (2.8%) followed by and P. ovale (32.7%). Participants at hospital laboratory had the highest percent agreement (72.3%, Kappa=0.51) on species identification. Malaria microscopists working at sub regional laboratory had a better quantification performance (P=0.003). Study participants who were participated on malaria microscopy and quality assurance training had a better performance on parasite quantification (P<0.001).
Conclusion & Recommendation: Agreement of the participants with expert microscopists in the identification of different malaria species and quantification were very low. Most participants did not identify P. malaria and P. ovale correctly. Therefore, policy backed regular competency assessment and training for malaria microscopists is essential and mandatory that can assure proper diagnosis and management of malaria in Ethiopia.
University of Ilorin, Nigeria
Title: In-vitro antiplasmodial activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ochna schweinfurthiana leaf
Time : 11:20-11:50
Omoniwa B. Percy is a PhD student of Biochemistry at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria and an early career academic at the Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Jos, Nigeria. He has experience in quality control of pharmaceutics and is building a career in lecturing where he contributes his quota through teaching, research and administration. He is presently focusing on ethnopharmacology, reproductive biochemistry, parasitology and biochemical toxicology and has published in local and international journals.
Statement of the Problem: Malaria is a major public health challenge in developing countries. 109 countries were reported endemic to malaria in 2008 leaving 3.2 billion people, nearly half the world’s population at risk of malaria. Plasmodium falciparum reduced sensitivity to ACTs has been reported in Asia and Africa. There is no suitable replacement for ACTs if parasite develops resistance. This highlights the urgent for new antimalarial drugs. This study evaluated the in-vitro antiplasmodial activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ochna schweinfurthiana leaf on P. falciparum. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: P. falciparum was grown in a 96 well microtitre plate in the presence of RPMI 1640 culture media supplemented with Albumax II. The wells were divided into groups I-XIII: Group I (negative control), groups II, III, IV, V (positive control groups containing 10, 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml of Artemether/Lumefantrine respectively), groups VI, VII, VIII, IX and X, XI, XII, XIII (treatment groups containing cold and hot aqueous extracts at the respective doses). The microtitre plate was incubated at 37oC in an anaerobic jar and parasitemia taken after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Findings: There was a significant reduction (P< 0.05) in parasitemia of extract-treated groups when compared to the negative control. The 10, 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml doses of the extracts gave a percentage parasite inhibition of 79.77, 81.86, 83.38 and 86.42% (cold extract) and 76.26, 78.54, 82.72 and 85.06% (hot extract) respectively which are significantly lower than 99.71, 99.81, 100.00 and 100.00% observed in the standard drug after 72 hours. However, Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) activity in the extract-treated groups did not show any significant difference when compared with the Artemether/Lumefantrine group. Conclusion & Significance: Aqueous extracts of Ochna schweinfurthiana leaf possess inhibitory activity against P. falciparum in-vitro and justifies it folkloric use as antimalarial.
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit (OUCRU-NP), Kathmandu.
Title: The rise of antimicrobial resistance and the epidemiology of multidrug resistant hospital acquired bloodstream infections in a tertiary care hospital in Nepal
Time : 11:50-12:20
Abhilasha Karkey is currently working as a Medical Microbiologist at the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit (OUCRU-NP), Kathmandu. Her academic career over the last decade has incorporated periods of rigorous university training and spanned a variety disciplines, including field research experience in community and hospital settings. After successfully completing an MSc from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, she went on to work for Médecins Sans Frontières for four years in various missions across Africa and Asia in emergency conflict situations. She then went on to gain her Doctoral degree from the University of Oxford and started working for her current institution. She is involved with infectious disease research projects that involve enteric fever and antimicrobial resistance among various Gram negative pathogens. Currently, she is an OAK Scientific Leadership Fellow and her research focuses on looking at nosocomial infections and antibiotic resistance patterns within the population.
Statement of the Problem: In 2011 Patan Hospital in Nepal witnessed massive outbreaks of NDM-1 Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis among neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit. Since then, massive efforts have been made to understand the epidemiology of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections within the local population. Through a 23 year retrospective data analysis, we are trying to understand what significant changes have occurred in the spectrum of organisms and their susceptibility patterns over the years. Additionally, through a prospective study, we will try to understand the epidemiology of multidrug resistant hospital acquired bloodstream infections and identify the risks for bloodstream infections and mortality within Patan Hospital
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A 23 year retrospective analysis of all blood cultures taken at Patan Hospital between April 1992 and December 2014 were analyzed. To measure the overall impact of antimicrobial resistance on the outcome of BSI, a prospective hospital wide study is being conducted. Additionally all neonates admitted to the NICU are being enrolled to investigate the risk factors for development of BSI.
Findings: 23 year data documents showed changes in the epidemiology of bloodstream infections in Patan hospital from 1992 to 2014 which include (i) an increase in absolute number of blood cultures positive for Enterobacteriaceae non Salmonella and Gram positive, (ii) an overall increase in resistance to single antimicrobials between 1992 and 2014, (iii) an increase in multidrug resistance (MDR), including an acceleration in the rate of MDR acquisition for Gram positive, and (iv) the high prevalence of MDR isolates in community-acquired infections.