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6th International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases, will be organized around the theme “Exploring New Innovations and Frontiers in Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases”
Bacteriology 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Bacteriology 2018
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Bacterial ecology is defined as the interaction between bacteria and with their environment. Bacteria play a vital role in the biosphere and certain key processes, such as, the production and oxidation of methane, soil formation, conversion of rock to soil etc. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms and the part of microbiological science which encompasses the study of bacteria is known as “Bacteriology”. Major researches in bacteriology over the past years resulted in the development of many useful vaccines. The ancestors of present bacteria were said to be first forms of life on earth. Bacterial cells are about 0.5-5.0 micrometres in length. Bacteria exists in different shapes like single celled, diploid (Neisseria), chains (Streptococcus), filaments (Actinobacteria).Bacteria lack membrane bound organelles, contains single loop DNA, it generally undergo conjugation. There are techniques like staining to differentiate Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Compared to virus, cost for antibiotics is low still 700 million infections were found every year with the mortality rate of 0.1% normally and in severe conditions it is about 25%.
Clinical Reviews of infectious diseases and Clinical bacteriology supports the diagnosis of disease using laboratory testing of blood, tissues, and other body fluids. There are types of specimens used clinical pathology. They are blood, urine, sputum, faeces, and other body fluids, in which it deals with health care, especially the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the female reproductive system.
The market is segmented on the basis of geography, such as, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. At present, North America and Europe are the most prominent markets, owing to growing prevalence of various gram-positive bacterial infections and associated diseases. However, Asia-Pacific and some countries in Rest of the World region are expected to show lucrative growth in upcoming period, owing to rapidly growing prevalence and awareness about the diseases caused due to gram-positive bacteria and their chronic effects.
The value of microbials and microbial physiology microbials market is projected to increase to $4,456.37 million by 2019 at a CAGR of 15.3% from 2014. The market is expected to show a prominent growth during the forecast period 2014 – 2020.
Identification is the practical application of taxonomic knowledge. The control of microbial nutrition and microbial growth involves microscopy of microbes and sterilization, disinfection, sanitization processes or use of chemical agents and applied bacteriology and Veterinary Clinical Sciences. Pathogenic microorganisms are microbes which are capable of causing disease when enters into the body which can spread through water, air, soil and also through physical contact. The global microbial identification market is estimated at $896.5 million by the end of 2014 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.9% from 2014 to 2019, to reach $1,194.1 million by 2019.
Occupational epidemiology is of great importance in clinical epidemiology and of occupational hygiene since it provides powerful and good information to understand the causes and determinants of work related ill-health, to help establish what steps should be taken to reduce occupational risks, and to evaluate interventions for the benefits of workers, and of the community in a bigger manner. Many organisms live in and on our bodies which are normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person.
Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals. Of the 11 species that colonize humans, only two are pathogens, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Most gonoccocal infections are asymptomatic and self-resolving, and epidemic strains of the meningococcus may be carried in >95% of a population where systemic disease occurs at <1% prevalence.
Many bacterial Infection forms biofilms with which its pathogenic nature increases. The vast majority of these compounds exert their antibiofilm properties through disruption of "quorum sensing," a common means of intercellular communication in bacterial communities that allows coordinated expression of virulence factors and facilitates formation of the complex architecture of mature bacterial biofilms causing zoonotic bacterial diseases. Certain pathogens like Pseudomonas syringe injects virulence in plant host causing diseases. For the Diagnosis of Pathogenic microorganisms Direct Examination and Techniques includes Immunofluorescence, immuno-peroxidase staining, and other immunoassays may detect specific microbial antigens. Genetic probes identify genus- or species-specific DNA or RNA sequences.
Humans are associated with microorganisms, as they even colonize in the body like S.aureus in the upper respiratory tract but it may not be harmful to the host and micro inflammation is a body’s defensive response towards an invading microorganism as an effort for self-protection to eradicate harmful stimuli. There are innate immune systems (primary defense mechanism) and adaptive immune system (secondary defence mechanism). Immunogenetics is a subspeciality of medicine that studies the relationship between genetics and immunology. Immunogenetics helps in understanding the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and infectious diseases and bacterial infections under clinical bacteriology also. The effect of pathogen on host not only depends upon the virulence factor but also depend upon the host’s genetic background. Some species shows innate susceptibility to pathogen not with host like syphilis, gonorrhoea, measles and poliomyelitis act on humans alone. The anatomical defense includes penetration of bacteria through the cut, puncture or scrap on the skin. There are some others like phagocytosis, inflammation through which bacteria can enter the host. Cell mediated immunity cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.CD4 cells. For a good and proper health conditions, there is a need to improve immune systems. In the total adult population of US only 3% are able to manage the stress (10%), energy (15%) and sleep (11%) and a compromised immune system simultaneously.
Diagnostic Pathology involves with examination of body tissues and their examination, Microscopical study of abnormal tissue development, disease determination, histopathology of lesions and sometimes post-mortem. It does research on critical diagnosis in surgical pathology. Many diseases are associated with bacterial infections. A pathogen predisposes to diseases states but may not cause disease. It may cause disease only in combinations (toxins exposure).Any disease causing gene that reduces survival and reproduction will eliminate itself over a number of generations therefore genetic diseases are self-extinguishing. For example, genes that encode sickle cell anaemia are maintained and persist down generations, as these genes protect against malaria, which kills millions worldwide every year. About 70% deaths in US results from chronic diseases and the treatment accounting 75% of all US healthcare costs (amounting to $ 1.7 trillion in 2009).
During the past 10 years, genomics and bacterial genomics based approaches have had a profound impact on the field of microbiology and our understanding of microbial species. Because of their larger genome sizes, genome sequencing efforts on fungi and unicellular eukaryotes were slower to get started than projects focused on prokaryotes; however, today there are a number of genome sequences available from both of these groups of organisms that have led to significant improvements in overall sequence annotation and also shed considerable light on novel aspects of their biology. Molecular systems biology is an integrative discipline that seeks to explain the properties and behaviour of complex biological systems in terms of their molecular components and their interactions. Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems. According to the World Health Organization more than 1 million people acquire a sexually transmitted infection (STI) every day and an estimated 500 million people become ill with Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis or trichomoniasis every year.
Global Review under microbial Testing of microbial enzyme in the Industrial Market (IMMR-4) is a new, extensively researched analysis of the sizable market for microbiological testing in the industrial market. IMMR-4 tracks and compares microbiology test volumes, market values and methods used by companies in the production of safe and wholesome products that meet label claims. IMMR-4 includes global test volumes and growth in industrial microbiology with further analysis of market sectors, geographic regions, test methods, organisms tested and sample sources. Current market values are detailed as well as projected through 2019. With five-year projections of both testing volumes and market value, IMMR-4 provides critical input to strategic planning. Synthetic genomics is useful for the synthesis of DNA. It gives the methods which are the combination of chemical and computational techniques. By this combination of methods the work which is almost impossible by using conventional techniques became easier. It is possible to design and assemble the whole genome by using synthetic genomics. Applied microbiology is a branch deals with application of microorganisms in the field of science for the production of human beneficial products such as medicines, antibiotics, vaccines, enzymes, biotechnological engineered products and also in food technology as fermentation products.
Pathogenic bacteria are inflamative bacteria which are capable of causing disease when enters into the body which can spread through water, air, soil and also through physical contact. Mostly bacteria’s are harmless and beneficial but some are pathogenic. The global medical and clinical microbiology market is valued at $6,727.29 million in 2014 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 13.03% between 2014 and 2019. Increasing disease burden of infectious diseases under industrial microbiology and increased funding for healthcare expenditure are the important growth drivers for this market during the forecast period.
The pharmaceuticals application segment accounted for the largest share of the microbiology market in 2014, while the food application segment is expected grow at the highest CAGR between 2014 and 2019 in the global microbiology market.
Vaccination is a process of administration of an antigenic material (vaccine) into a living mechanism. The clinical effect desired is to cause stimulation of an individual's immune system in order to develop an adaptive immunity against the pathogen constituting the vaccine. Vaccination is the most effective method of prevention for infectious diseases. Vaccine Adjuvants are components which potentiate the immune system and accelerate the immune responses to an antigen. It can also be termed as an immunologic adjuvant. These components act to induce, prolong, and enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens.
Antimicrobial is the agent that kills or restricts the cell growth. To fight against the potential bacteria now-a-days, the manufacturing companies are coming up with more advanced antimicrobial liquids/soaps/sanitizers. Immunization/Vaccination is one of the most cost effective public health interventions to date, saving millions of lives1 and protecting countless children from illness and disability. As a direct result of immunization, polio is on the verge of eradication. Deaths from measles, a major child killer, declined by 71 per cent worldwide and by 80 per cent in sub Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2011.2 And 35 of 59 priority countries have eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus.
Emerging infectious diseases are those which are caused by bacteria like E.coli, Salmonella, H.pylori, N.gonorrhoeae, N.meningitidis, S.aureus, and S.bacteria. It includes diseases like pneumonia, meningitis, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections. Case Reports in Clinical Pathology and industrial microbiology supports the diagnosis of disease using laboratory testing of blood, tissues, and other body fluids. There are types of specimens used clinical pathology. They are blood, urine, sputum, faeces, and other body fluids. It deals with women's complaints gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, '.Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering", and -logia (-λογία), "an account of") is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. Pathology is a branch of medical science primarily concerning the examination of organs, tissues, and bodily fluids in order to make a diagnosis of disease.
The market is segmented on the basis of geography, such as, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. At present, North America and Europe are the most prominent markets, owing to growing prevalence of various gram-positive bacterial infections and associated diseases. However, Asia-Pacific and some countries in Rest of the World region are expected to show lucrative growth in upcoming period, owing to rapidly growing prevalence and awareness about the mycobacterial diseases caused due to gram-positive bacteria and their chronic effects. Under microbiology the value of microbials market is projected to increase to $4,456.37 million by 2019 at a CAGR of 15.3% from 2014. The market is expected to show a prominent cell growth during the forecast period 2014 – 2020.