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\r\n Antibiotics are commonly used in the management of respiratory disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD. In those conditions long-term antibiotics can be delivered as nebulised aerosols or administered orally. In CF, nebulised colomycin or tobramycin improve lung function, reduce number of exacerbations and improve quality of life (QoL). Oral antibiotics, such as macrolides, have acquired wide use not only as anti-microbial agents but also due to their anti-inflammatory and pro-kinetic properties. In CF, macrolides such as azithromycin have been shown to improve the lung function and reduce frequency of infective exacerbations. Similarly macrolides have been shown to have some benefits in COPD including reduction in a number of exacerbations. In asthma, macrolides have been reported to improve some subjective parameters, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation; however have no benefits on lung function or overall asthma control. Macrolides have also been used with beneficial effects in less common disorders such as diffuse panbronchiolitis or post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.\r\n
\r\n Occupational epidemiology is of great importance in clinical epidemiology and of occupational hygiene since it provides powerful and good information to understand the causes and determinants of work related ill-health, to help establish what steps should be taken to reduce occupational risks, and to evaluate interventions for the benefits of workers, and of the community in a bigger manner. Many organisms live in and on our bodies which are normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person.\r\n
\r\n It introduces the basic methods for infectious disease epidemiology and case studies of important disease syndromes, bacterial Infection and entities. Methods include definitions and nomenclature, outbreak investigations, disease surveillance, case-control studies, cohort studies, laboratory diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, dynamics of transmission, and assessment of vaccine field effectiveness. Case-studies focus on acute respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, hepatitis, HIV, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, and other vector-borne diseases. The IDD market is poised to reach $18,156.2 million by 2019 from $12,422.8 million in 2014, at a CAGR of 7.9% from 2014 to 2019.\r\n
\r\n Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals. Of the 11 species that colonize humans, only two are pathogens, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Most gonoccocal infections are asymptomatic and self-resolving, and epidemic strains of the meningococcus may be carried in >95% of a population where systemic disease occurs at <1% prevalence.\r\n
\r\n Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs. Meningitis can be life threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord. The common symptoms are headache and neck stiffness associated with fever, confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light (photophobia) or loud noises (phonophobia).There are about 464,000 deaths in 1990 and 303,000 deaths in 2013.\r\n
\r\n Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It's tougher to treat than most strains of staphylococcus aureus because it's resistant to some commonly used antibiotics.\r\n
\r\n The symptoms of MRSA depend on where you're infected. Most often, it causes mild infections on the skin, like sores or boils. But it can also cause more serious skin infections or infect surgical wounds, the bloodstream, the lungs, or the urinary tract.\r\n
\r\n Though most MRSA infections aren't serious, some can be life-threatening. Many public health experts are alarmed by the spread of tough strains of MRSA. Because it's hard to treat, MRSA is sometimes called a "super bug."\r\n
\r\n Most MRSA infections occur in people who've been in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers. When it occurs in these settings, it's known as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). HA-MRSA infections typically are associated with invasive procedures or devices, such as surgeries, intravenous tubing or artificial joints.\r\n
\r\n Another type of MRSA infection has occurred in the wider community — among healthy people. This form, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA), often begins as a painful skin boil. It's spread by skin-to-skin contact.\r\n
\r\n The antibiotic resistance problem is caused by the evolution and transfer of genes that confer resistance to medically important antibiotics into human pathogens. The acquisition of such resistance genes by pathogens complicates disease treatment, increases health care costs, and increases morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. As antibiotic resistance continues to evolve, antibiotics of so-called last resort become even more precious. Reducing or preventing the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes into human pathogens is currently of high international importance. First, more than 70 years of antibiotic use have already selected for diverse and highly mobile antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens and related bacteria. These resistant bacteria spread in the environment via water, air, wildlife, and humans, so targeted mitigation strategies are needed to decrease the environmental dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from “hot spots” of potential resistance development. Second, highly mobile resistance genes can be horizontally transferred from one bacterium to another. Resistance gene transfer events can be stimulated by antibiotics themselves. Therefore, prudent use of antibiotics is one potential mitigation strategy to slow the spread of resistance genes among bacteria. The use of antibiotic alternatives to promote health and reduce disease will decrease antibiotic use, thereby decreasing selective pressure for the emergence and transmission of antibiotic-resistance genes.\r\n
\r\n Antibiotics, also known as antibacterials, are medications that destroy or slow down the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight certain infections and can save lives when used properly. They either stop bacteria from reproducing or destroy them. Before bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms, the immune system can typically kill them. White blood cells (WBCs) attack harmful bacteria and, even if symptoms do occur, the immune system can usually cope and fight off the infection. They include a range of powerful drugs and are used to treat diseases caused by bacteria. A doctor prescribes antibiotics for the treatment of a bacterial infection. It is not effective against viruses.\r\n
\r\n Identification is the practical application of taxonomic knowledge. The control of microbial nutrition and microbial growth involves microscopy of microbes and sterilization, disinfection, sanitization processes or use of chemical agents and applied bacteriology and Veterinary Clinical Sciences. Pathogenic microorganisms are microbes which are capable of causing disease when enters into the body which can spread through water, air, soil and also through physical contact.\r\n
\r\n For the Diagnosis of pathogenic microorganisms, the direct examination and techniques includes Immunofluorescence, immuno-peroxidase staining, and other immunoassays may detect specific microbial antigens. In molecular medicine generally Genetic probes identify genus- or species-specific DNA or RNA sequences. Mostly bacteria’s are harmless and beneficial but some are pathogenic. Dichotomous keys and diagnostic tables form the backbone of everyday identification, Standardization of methods for characterizing tests, the development of multiple inoculation apparatus, and the use of mass cultures will enable more reliable tests to be carried out and more strains to be tested. There are rapid methods for bacterial identifications for mycobacteria confirmations, and tracks contaminant sources of all pathogenic, indicators, spoiler organisms, and other environmental isolates using the latest technologies. The global microbial identification market is estimated at $896.5 million by the end of 2014 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.9% from 2014 to 2019, to reach $1,194.1 million by 2019.\r\n
\r\n The increasing fear of drug-resistant superbugs is leading to a growing push for the next generation of antibiotics. The development of new antibiotics is crucial to controlling current and future infectious diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The discovery of a new antibiotic called teixobactin was announced by international team of researchers in 2017. The researchers now plan on studying the bacteria and decide what tools might be able to control its behavior to release its full antibiotic potential.\r\n
\r\n Antibiotic prophylaxis is the use of antibiotics before surgery or a dental procedure to prevent a bacterial infection. However, antibiotic prophylaxis is still used in people who have certain risk factors for bacterial infection. The most common antibiotics used before surgeries are cephalosporins, such as cefazolin and cefuroxime. People who may need antibiotic prophylaxis usually have factors that put them at higher risk of infection during surgery than the general population.\r\n
\r\n Bacterial physiology is a scientific discipline that concerns the life-supporting functions and processes of bacteria, which allow bacterial cells to grow and reproduce. Experiments are performed in order to obtain information about physical and chemical factors that affect bacterial cell growth and death, bacterial nutrition, metabolism, replication and other aspects of bacterial physiology. This research provides insight about the treatment of bacterial disease and use of bacteria in biotechnology.\r\n
\r\n Plant bacteriology involves the scientific study of bacteria identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, epidemiology of plant diseases, plant disease resistance, the way in which plant diseases affect humans and animals. Some bacteria causes a small proportion of plant diseases, this does not mean that these diseases are unimportant. Pathogenic tests can be done for the prevention of disease.\r\n
\r\n Clinical Reviews of infectious diseases and Clinical bacteriology supports the diagnosis of disease using laboratory testing of blood, tissues, and other body fluids. There are types of specimens used clinical pathology. They are blood, urine, sputum, faeces, and other body fluids, in which it deals with health care, especially the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the female reproductive system.\r\n
\r\n The market is segmented on the basis of geography, such as, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. At present, North America and Europe are the most prominent markets, owing to growing prevalence of various gram-positive bacterial infections and associated diseases. However, Asia-Pacific and some countries in Rest of the World region are expected to show lucrative growth in upcoming period, owing to rapidly growing prevalence and awareness about the diseases caused due to gram-positive bacteria and their chronic effects.\r\n
\r\n The value of microbials and microbial physiology microbials market is projected to increase to $4,456.37 million by 2019 at a CAGR of 15.3% from 2014. The market is expected to show a prominent growth during the forecast period 2014 – 2020.\r\n
\r\n Diagnostic Pathology involves with examination of body tissues and their examination. Microscopical study of abnormal tissue development, disease determination, histopathology of lesions and sometimes post-mortem. It does research on critical diagnosis in surgical pathology. Many diseases are associated with bacterial infections. A pathogen predisposes to diseases states but may not cause disease. It may cause disease only in combinations (toxins exposure).Any disease causing gene that reduces survival and reproduction will eliminate itself over a number of generations therefore genetic diseases are self-extinguishing. For example, genes that encode sickle cell anaemia are maintained and persist down generations, as these genes protect against malaria, which kills millions worldwide every year. About 70% deaths in US results from chronic diseases and the treatment accounting 75% of all US healthcare costs (amounting to $ 1.7 trillion in 2009).\r\n
\r\n Anti-microbial is the agent that kills or restricts the bacterial growth. To fight against the potential bacteria now-a-days, the manufacturing companies are coming up with more advanced anti-microbial liquids/soaps/sanitizers.\r\n
\r\n Immunization/Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to date, saving millions of lives and protecting countless children from illness and disability. As a direct result of immunization, polio is on the verge of eradication. Deaths from measles, a major child killer, declined by 71 per cent worldwide and by 80 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2011.2 And 35 of 59 priority countries have eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus.\r\n
\r\n Immunization has not yet realized its full potential, however. As of end-2013, 21.8 million children under 1 year of age worldwide had not received the three recommended doses of vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis containing vaccine (DTP3), and 21.6 million children in the same age group had failed to receive a single dose of measles-containing vaccine. Given an estimated annual cohort of 133.6 million surviving infants, an additional 11.2 million children would need to have been reached during 2013 to attain 90% DTP3 coverage globally.\r\n
\r\n In the spring of 2009, a new flu virus spread quickly across the United States and the world. The first U.S. case of H1N1 (swine flu) was diagnosed on April 15, 2009. By April 21, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was working to develop a vaccine for this new virus. On April 26, the U.S. government declared H1N1 a public health emergency.\r\n
\r\n Microbial Pathogenesis is the study of the molecular mechanisms used by microbes to cause disease in humans and animals. Bacterial, protozoan, fungal and viral pathogens have evolved a wide variety of tools to establish themselves in the host and gain nutrients, which also cause damage and disease. Other mechanisms of pathogenesis include host defence evasion. To understand the complex processes used by microbial pathogens, microbiologists employ all the tools of modern molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry and biophysics. Understanding how microbes cause disease is often the first step toward the development of new therapeutic approaches.\r\n
\r\n Microorganisms and viruses can also interact with host cells to induce alterations in cellular phenotype and function in order to subvert host cell metabolism to meet their own needs. Some microbes and viruses exert effects on the host immune response in order to evade host immune control. Understanding the interplay between infectious pathogens and their host cells is important in order to identify potential new targets for drug therapy.\r\n
\r\n Bacterial ecology is defined as the interaction between bacteria and with their environment. Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low‐molecular‐weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Bacteria play a vital role in the biosphere and certain key processes, such as, the production and oxidation of methane, soil formation, conversion of rock to soil etc.\r\n
\r\n Antibiotic sensitivity or antibiotic susceptibility is the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics. Because susceptibility can vary even within a species (with some strains being more resistant than others), antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is usually carried out to determine which antibiotic will be most successful in treating a bacterial infection in vivo. Testing for antibiotic sensitivity is often done by the Kirby-Bauer method. Small wafers containing antibiotics are placed onto a plate upon which bacteria are growing. If the bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic, a clear ring, or zone of inhibition, is seen around the wafer indicating poor growth.\r\n
\r\n Ideal antibiotic therapy is based on determination of the aetiological agent and its relevant antibiotic sensitivity. Empiric treatment is often started before laboratory microbiological reports are available when treatment should not be delayed due to the seriousness of the disease. The effectiveness of individual antibiotics varies with the location of the infection, the ability of the antibiotic to reach the site of infection, and the ability of the bacteria to resist or inactivate the antibiotic. Some antibiotics actually kill the bacteria (bactericidal), whereas others merely prevent the bacteria from multiplying (bacteriostatic) so that the host's immune system can overcome them. Müeller-Hinton agar is most frequently used in this antibiotic susceptibility test.\r\n
\r\n An antibiogram is the result of an antibiotic sensitivity test. It is by definition an in vitro sensitivity, but the correlation of in vitro to in vivo sensitivity is often high enough for the test to be clinically useful.\r\n
\r\n Before starting this treatment, the physician will collect a sample from a suspected contaminated compartment: a blood sample when bacteria possibly have invaded the bloodstream, a sputum sample in the case of a ventilator associated pneumonia, and a urine sample in the case of a urinary tract infection. These samples are transferred to the microbiology lab, which looks at the sample under the microscope, and tries to culture the bacteria. This can help in the diagnosis.\r\n
\r\n The most common dental diseases, periodontal disease and dental caries, are chronic infections caused by bacteria of normal oral flora. When these bacteria increase in number and irritation exceeds the host defence threshold, disease arises. The human oral flora comprises more than 300 different bacteria. During the last decade approximately 10 species, mainly Gram-negative anaerobes, have been noted as putative pathogens in periodontal disease. The Gram-positive and facultatively anaerobic mutans streptococci are aetiologically the most important bacteria in dental caries. Chronic dental infections have been the focus of renewed interest because of recent advances in oral microbiology as well as in medicine. Oral bacteria may spread into the blood stream through ulcerated epithelium in diseased periodontal pockets and cause transient bacteraemias, which are regarded as increased risk, especially for immunocompromised patients or persons with endoprotheses. In these patients, routine antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for invasive dental care procedures.\r\n
Prescribing doctors are, increasingly, using clinical trial data as a major source of information for evidence-based medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases, as in other clinical disciplines. However, it may be difficult to extract from these data the information that is needed for the management of the individual patient. At the same time, clinical trial data have been used, apparently satisfactorily, in the process of drug registration, and the pharmaceutical industry has spent increasingly large sums of money to satisfy the needs of this process.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that alters the urinary system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. The causative of the infection is a bacteria called Escherichia coli. Composition of urine is salts, fluids and waste produces, but does not usually have bacteria in it. Bacteria inflowing the bladder or kidney can multiply rapidly in the urine, causing a UTI (urinary tract infection). Cystitis is the most common type of UTI and mostoftenly referred to as a bladder infection. A kidney infection, also known as pyelonephritis is potentially more serious.
Infections of the bladder and/or urethra are known as lower urinary tract infections; if it occurs in the kidneys or ureters they are known as upper urinary tract infections. In general, urinary tract infections are simply and effectively treated with a short course of antibiotics. However, infection can cause uneasiness, to the patient suffering pain at the time of urination, a frequent desire to urinate, and cloudy urine. Women are more likely than men to have a UTI. This is because in women the urethra is nearer to the anus than it is in men, which makes it easier for bacteria to get from the anus to the urethra. In women the urethra is also much shorter than it is in men, making it easier for bacteria to contact the bladder. Antibiotics are used to treat UTIs. The majority cases of UTIs clear up after a few days of drug treatment, although more severe cases may require few weeks of treatment. Guidelines recommend using nitrofurantoin or trimethoprin-sulfamethoxazole as first-line antibiotic treatments for UTIs. Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin) are now only recommended when other antibiotics are not appropriate.
The rise of dangerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a critical public health problem, fueled in part by their use in industrial animal agriculture. Since the 1940s, antibiotics have played a critical role in protecting public health, and have saved millions of lives. However, the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics by the is now responsible for the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria that pose a grave threat to public health. According to the FDA, more than 20 million pounds of medically important antibiotic drugs modern food animal industry were sold for use in food producing farm animals in 2014.
Antibiotics have been used in livestock feed since the 1940s, when studies showed that the drugs caused animals to grow faster and put on weight more efficiently, increasing meat producers’ profits. Up until the recent past, when the FDA banned the practice, non-therapeutic antibiotics — those used for purposes other than treating disease — were routinely given to livestock, poultry and fish on industrial farms to promote faster growth.
As industrial farming has spread around the world, so, too, has the use of non-therapeutic antibiotics. One study estimates that global antimicrobial consumption will grow by 67 percent by 2030, due to increasing demand for animal-based products, with countries including Brazil, India and China doubling their usage over that time period. According to the World Health Organization, antibiotic-resistance in many areas of the world already exceeds 50 percent in many major bacteria groups, including E. coli, K. pneumonia and S. aureus.
Antibiotics, also called antibacterials or antimicrobials, is a group of medicines used in the treatment of infections caused by germs—bacteria and certain parasites—by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms or killing them. Since the discovery of the antibiotic penicillin in 1920, various antibiotic compounds have been widely used to treat several bacterial infections. Increasing incidence of chronic and infectious diseases across the globe and efficacy of antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of bacterial infections have led to the rapid evolution of the global antibiotic market. Based on geography, the report segments the global antibiotic markets into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (ROW). Currently, Asia Pacific accounts for the leading share in the global antibiotic market. The region is likely to present exciting growth opportunities along the forecast period, driven by the prevalence of various infectious diseases, favorable regulatory reforms, and significant demand for generic medicines. A large number of players have been actively focusing on new drug development and clinical trials. Prominent biotechnology companies are entering into strategic alliances, which has helped them make considerable investments in drug discovery. Pharmaceutical companies are actively developing analogues of existing antibiotic classes based on innovative approaches to fight bacterial infections. Key players operating in the global antibiotic market include Pfizer Inc., Astellas Pharma, Inc, Roche, Novartis AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Bayer HealthCare AG, Abbott Laboratories, MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd., Daiichi Sankyo Company, Ltd., GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Eli Lilly and Co., and Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. The antibiotics market was valued at USD 39.8 billion in 2015 and is expected to witness a CAGR of 4.0% over the forecast period. Increasing efforts are being witnessed toward the development of advanced products. According to the data published by the Pew Charitable Trust, in March 2016, about 37 promising molecules were being investigated within the U.S. market. Majority of these, are in phase II clinical trials and are anticipated to hit the market between 2018 - 2020. Furthermore, supportive government legislations, such as the Generating Antibiotics Incentives Now (GAIN) Act are expected to expedite the approval process. GAIN Act has provisions which facilitate development of therapy against antibiotic resistant pathogens.
Bacterial pathogenesis is the process by which bacteria infect and cause disease in a host. Not all bacteria are pathogens and have the ability for pathogenesis (also known as virulence). Pathogenic bacteria utilise a number of mechanisms to cause disease in human hosts. Bacterial pathogens express a wide range of molecules that bind host cell targets to facilitate a variety of different host responses. The molecular strategies used by bacteria to interact with the host can be unique to specific pathogens or conserved across several different species. A key to fighting bacterial disease is the identification and characterisation of all these different strategies. The availability of complete genome sequences for several bacterial pathogens coupled with bioinformatics will lead to significant advances toward this goal. There are several bacterial pathogenic diseases. One among them is tuberculosis which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It includes other pathogens of bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas. These pathogens and form of bacteria causes many foodborne illnesses and infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever and diphtheria. Microbes express their pathogenicity by means of their virulence. The determinants of virulence of a pathogen are any of its genetic or biochemical or structural features that enable it to produce disease in a host. In bacterial host mediated pathogenesis, (e.g., tuberculosis), tissue damage results from the toxic mediators released by lymphoid cells rather than from bacterial toxins.
Ever since the discovery of antibiotics, the quality of human life greatly improved in the 20th century. The discovery of penicillin transformed the medicine industry and initiated a search for a better antibiotic every time resulting in several synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics. Beginning with the 1937 sulfa drug tragedy, the drug regulations had a parallel growth along with the antibiotics and the antibiotic-based generic Pharma industries. Several regulatory aspects involved with these industries have been discussed along with the complexity of the market, issues that could affect their growth, their struggle for quality, and their compliance with the tightened regulations. With the skyrocketing commercialization of antibiotics through generics and the leveraging technologic renaissance, generic industries are involved in providing maximum safer benefits for the welfare of the people, highlighting its need today.
The term antibiotic is now generally used to include antimicrobial substances produced by chemical means as well as those produced by micro-organisms. They may be either bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal. A bacteriostatic antibiotic inhibits the growth and replication of bacteria thereby giving the body's natural defence mechanisms time to become effective in overcoming an infection. In the majority of cases, and particularly in patients whose natural resistance is lowered by disorders of the immune system, it is preferable to choose a bacteriocidal agent. The first bacteriocidal antibiotic was penicillin G. Knowledge of how the body handles a drug, in particular an understanding of absorption, distribution and excretion, helps to provide rational dose regimes which give therapeutic concentrations but keep adverse reactions to a minimum. The two important features of the structure of penicillin are the (3-lactam ring and the side-chain. Alterations in the side-chain give rise to differences in resistance to gastric acid and variation in antibacterial spectrum. In general, increasing the length of the side-chain increases resistance to gastric acid and increases the antibacterial spectrum.
Antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in a way that reduces the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections. The bacteria survive and continue to multiply, causing more harm. Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world’s most pressing public health problems. Antibiotic resistance can cause illnesses that were once easily treatable with antibiotics to become dangerous infections, prolonging suffering for children and adults. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are often more difficult to kill and more expensive to treat. In some cases, the antibiotic-resistant infections can lead to serious disability or even death. Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections like the common cold, flu, most sore throats, bronchitis, and many sinus and ear infections. Widespread use of antibiotics for these illnesses is an example of how overuse of antibiotics can promote the spread of antibiotic resistance. Smart use of antibiotics is key to controlling the spread of resistance. Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics through several ways. Some bacteria can “neutralize” an antibiotic by changing it in a way that makes it harmless. Others have learned how to pump an antibiotic back outside of the bacteria before it can do any harm. Some bacteria can change their outer structure so the antibiotic has no way to attach to the bacteria it is designed to kill. After being exposed to antibiotics, sometimes one of the bacteria can survive because it found a way to resist the antibiotic. If even one bacterium becomes resistant to antibiotics, it can then multiply and replace all the bacteria that were killed off. That means that exposure to antibiotics provides selective pressure making the surviving bacteria more likely to be resistant. Bacteria can also become resistant through mutation of their genetic material.
Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina. It is not a true bacterial infection but rather an imbalance of the bacteria that are normally present in the vagina. Usually treatment is with an antibiotic, such as clindamycin or metronidazole. BV is the most common vaginal infection in women of reproductive age. In the United States about 30% of women between the ages of 14 and 49 are affected. BV is linked to an imbalance of “good” and “harmful” bacteria that are normally found in a woman’s vagina. Bacterial vaginosis results from overgrowth of one of several bacteria naturally found in your vagina. Usually, "good" bacteria (lactobacilli) outnumber "bad" bacteria (anaerobes). But if there are too many anaerobic bacteria, they upset the natural balance of microorganisms in your vagina and cause bacterial vaginosis. BV is a polymicrobial clinical syndrome resulting from replacement of the normal hydrogen peroxide producing Lactobacillus sp. in the vagina with high concentrations of anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Prevotella sp. and Mobiluncus sp.), G. vaginalis, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, and numerous fastidious or uncultivated anaerobes. Some women experience transient vaginal microbial changes, whereas others experience them for longer intervals of time.
Listeria bacteria can contaminate fresh produce, like cantaloupes, as well as some processed foods, like cheeses. Symptoms of infection include fever, muscle aches, upset stomach, or diarrhea. Salmonella bacteria can taint any food, although there's a greater risk from animal products because of contact with animal feces. In chickens, it can infect eggs before the shell forms, so even clean, fresh eggs may harbor salmonella. E. coli lives in the intestines of cattle and can contaminate beef during the slaughtering process. Ground beef is especially risky, because the bacteria can spread when meat is ground up. Symptoms of E. coli infection include severe abdominal cramps, watery diarrhea, and vomiting. The illness typically develops several days after exposure and can be severe in vulnerable people. Clostridium perfringens is a type of bacteria that causes cramps and diarrhea lasting less than 24 hours. Stews, gravies, and other foods that are prepared in large quantities and kept warm for a long time before serving are a common source of C. perfringens infections. Vibrio vulnificus is a bacteria that lives in warm seawater and can contaminate shellfish, particularly oysters. V. vulnificus infection causes the same gastrointestinal symptoms as many other foodborne illnesses, but in people with weakened immune systems it can develop into a life-threatening blood infection. Salmonella is an extremely common type of bacteria. These rod-shaped organisms can be found in both cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals across the world. They are also one of the most common causes of sickness in human beings. Salmonella poisoning can infect people in one of two ways. It is most often spread from animals to people through the food supply. This is how the bacteria can cause the nauseating disease gastroenteritis.
Bacterial infections can cause a variety of conditions. Infections occur as bacteria enter the body or grow on the skin. Treatment for bacterial infection include taking medication. Common drug classes used to treat bacterial infections are penicillin antibiotics, quinolone antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, cephalosporin antibiotics, tetracycline antibiotics, lincosamide antibiotics, nitroimidazole antibiotics, sulfa antibiotics, polypeptide antibiotics, oxazolidinone antibiotics, penem antibiotics, glycopeptide antibiotics, and monobactam antibiotics. Sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and treatment for survival. Sepsis can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Bacterial infections are the most common cause of sepsis. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly) and/or amputations. Bacteria must enter your body for them to cause an infection. So you can get a bacterial infection through an opening in your skin, such as a cut, a bug bite, or a surgical wound. Bacteria may also enter your body through your airway and cause infections like bacterial pneumonia. Other types of bacterial infections include urinary tract infections (including bladder and kidney infections) and dental abscesses, as well as infections caused by MRSA, Group B Streptococcus, and C. Difficile.
Cancer patients develop neutropenia, a decrease in the subset of leucocytes responsible for protection against bacteria, as a result of chemotherapy or cancer. Neutropenia predisposes the patients to severe bacterial infections. Standard antibiotic regimens for cancer patients with neutropenia and fever are directed at most of the bacteria that can cause infections. However, a subset of resistant bacteria belonging to the gram-positive group (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococci) remain untreated unless specific antibiotics are added to the treatment. For patients receiving chemotherapy, there is an increased risk of infection due to a low white blood cell count (neutropenia) caused by a toxic effect of chemotherapy on the bone marrow. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly decreased the risk of death when compared to no intervention. Antibiotic prophylaxis also decreased the risk of death from infection and the risk of development of fever.
Laboratory-produced drugs used to target and destroy cancerous cells. Therapeutic anticancer antibiotics have become an accepted treatment for certain types of cancer. These drugs bind specifically to primary and metastatic cancer cells to block cell growth, while limiting effects on surrounding healthy cells. Also called antitumor antibiotics, anticancer antibiotics can also be used to treat or prevent infections brought on by cancer treatments. Any anticancer drug that affects DNA synthesis and replication by inserting into DNA or by donating electrons that result in the production of highly reactive oxygen compounds (superoxide) that cause breakage of DNA strands. These antibiotics are administered almost exclusively by intravenous infusion for the treatment of lymphoma and leukemia, nephroblastoma (Wilm tumour), sarcoma, and cancers of the testicle, the breast, the thyroid, the lung, and the stomach.
Ayurvedic treatments have a good reputation because of the fewer side effects caused by them and also these are naturally available products and so it is not synthetically made which leads to no carcinogens in the ayurvedic products. Herbal remedies for bacterial infections comprise Aloe Vera, Neem, Barberry, Goldenseal, Garlic, Cinnamon, Thyme, Cloves, Cayenne Pepper, Horseradish, Cumin, Oregano, Basil, Rosemary, Lavender, Tea Tree, Nutmeg and Peppermint. Most of these herbs destroy the disease causing bacteria. Some herbs such as Echinacea combine antibacterial properties with immunostimulatory action. Herbal remedies which can cure bacterial infections with ease and efficacy. When antibiotics are used for a long time, it makes the disease causing microorganisms develop a defence against the action of these medicines, thereby, becoming totally unresponsive to medicines. This issue is becoming a huge concern for entire humanity that is threatening the validity and effectiveness of modern medicines. Ayurveda understands the delicate balance of nature and deals with diseases by taking a natural and balanced approach. Immunomodulatory rasayans in Ayurvedic medicines strengthen the body’s innate defence mechanism to fight diseases. As a result, disease causing microbes do not become drug resistant. Ayurvedic treatment is also safe for the gut microbiota and does not damage it. In addition to these obvious benefits, Ayurvedic treatment also acts on the root-cause rather than on symptoms. The ayurvedic products from the plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites which include flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids. These compounds are found to antimicrobial in nature. In Ayurveda, many herbal plants are used in treating bacterial infection and infectious diseases. Solvents extracts from certain herbal include Ajmodadi churna, Mahasudarshan churna, Triphala churna is found to have antibacterial properties against some bacterial pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogens, etc.
The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. The efficiency of antimicrobial treatment is determined by both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In spite of their selective toxicity, antibiotics still cause severe, life-threatening adverse reactions in host body mostly due to defective drug metabolism or excessive dosing regimen. Toxicity of antibiotics as well as antibiotic resistance mechanisms, resistome analyses and search for novel antibiotic resistance determinants with special emphasis given to the-state-of-the-art regarding multidrug efflux pumps and their additional physiological functions in stress adaptation and virulence of bacteria.
Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of infectious diseases. It is important to be able to identify them in patients in order to provide an effective treatment. The subject explores topics such as identification and quantitative methods, possible automation of the techniques or efficiency of available treatments while providing a clinical knowledge. The studies cover notably staphylococci, streptococci, corynebacteria, mycobacteria, neisseria, enteric bacteria, pasteurellae, pseudomonads and spirochaetes and their mechanisms of action in the context of the disease they cause. Available treatments are explored through the study of the different families of antibiotics, along with the possible resistance mechanisms they can develop and how they can be identified. The main aim of clinical bacteriology is to diagnose the disease by using specimens. These specimens may be urine, feces, body fluids, tissue etc. Manual testing is done by using this specimen to find out the infectious disease. The infectious diseases were mainly caused by the bacteria like s.pneumonia, h.pylori, t.palladium, l.borreliosis. Clinical bacteriology concerns of detection, prevention of infectious disease and to study the characteristic of the pathogen.
Bacteria is made up of three domains of life .Unlike eukaryotes, bacteria has nucleoids instead of nuclei. The bacterial cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan. And it is found in tissue of other organisms, soils, or water surfaces. It has specific structural characteristics including a cell envelope, ribosomes, nucleoid, pili, and flagella. It is also used to produce food, such as yoghurt. Bacteria is also used in the fields of biotechnology and gene therapy due to their possession of circular DNA called plasmids, in which it contain the genes that encode antibiotic resistance. The basic and metabolic highlights about some of these are obscure. Numerous microscopic organisms frame cooperative relationship with eukaryotes and are in this way of worry in medication and agriculture. Proteobacteria and cyanobacteria are the most essential phyla in worldwide biology and human issues. The cell divider in microbes fills in as a physical boundary between the cell and its environment. The inflexibility of the cell wall is because of Peptidoglycan is exceptional to the cell dividers of microorganisms, as eukaryotic cell dividers are for the most part made of chiten or cellulose,and archaea bacteria have cell walls composed of other polysaccharides and proteins. And the cell wall of bacteria contains 2 categorie; Gram-positive and Gram-negative, named after the gram strain test.
Bacterial genomics is a scientific discipline that concerns the genome, encompassing the entire hereditary information, of bacteria. Bacterial genomics can, for example, be used to study bacterial evolution or outbreaks of bacterial infections. All living organisms contain DNA. This amazing macromolecule encodes all of the information needed to program the cell's activities including reproduction, metabolism and other specialized functions. The human genome is comprised of 23 pairs of linear chromosomes, and approximately 3000 megabases (Mb) of DNA, while the genome of the bacterium Escherichia coli consists of a single 4.6 Mb circular chromosome. By studying the genomes of bacteria we are able to better understand their metabolic capabilities, their ability to cause disease and also their capacity to survive in extreme environments. Many of the well-studied bacterial model organisms, such as E. coli, have a single circular chromosome. However, advances in molecular genetics have shown that bacteria possess more complex arrangements of their genetic material than just a single circular chromosome per cell. Some bacterial genomes are comprised of multiple chromosomes and/or plasmids and many bacteria harbor multiple copies of their genome per cell. During the last decade, great advances have been made in the study of bacterial genomes which is perhaps better described by the term bacterial genomics. The application of powerful techniques, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of macro-restriction fragments of genomic DNA, has freed the characterisation of the chromosomes of many bacteria from the constraints imposed by classical genetic analysis. It is now possible to analyse the genome of virtually every microorganism by direct molecular methods and to construct detailed physical and gene maps.
The Public Health and bacteriology concentration includes studies in bacterial pathogenesis, principles of public health, epidemiology, molecular genetics, and environmental and industrial bacterial processes. Bacteriology of Public Health deals with public health hygiene. Public health refers to the science of all organized measures protecting and improving health of communities and populations locally and globally and to promote health, prevent disease as a whole through healthy life styles, promotion of research for disease, detection and control of bacterial diseases. Public health bacteriology aims to interpret diagnostics at the population level, rather than at the level of the individual patient. Outbreaks of infectious diseases such as Zika and Ebola, alongside increased concerns regarding antibiotic resistance, highlight the need for professionals who fully understand the role of microorganisms in public health in order to respond to such threats. It focuses on the science of bacteria, microorganisms and the range of strategies employed for public health protection, including epidemiology, public health intelligence, vaccination, antimicrobial chemotherapy, diagnostic microbiology and outbreak investigation.
Medical Bacteriology and Immunology covers all aspects of the interrelationship between bacterial agents and their hosts. Immunology studies the functions, mechanisms and significance of human defence systems in various disease conditions. Every day of our lives, we are exposed to microbes such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The single system in the body that allows life to continue in the face of these assaults is the immune system. The immune system is the network of cells and their biological processes that enable the body to recognize diseased cells or the invasion by microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, and prions) and eliminate them. Collectively, these two disciplines address how humans and other mammals respond to bacterial disease.
Vaccine development is a priority for global health due to the growing multidrug resistance in bacteria. Bacterial vaccines contain killed or attenuated bacteria that activate the immune system. Antibodies are built against that particular bacteria, and prevents bacterial infection later. An example of a bacterial vaccine is the Tuberculosis vaccine. Bacterial Vaccines provides information dealing with vaccination of man against bacterial diseases. A saline solution suspension of a strain of attenuated or killed bacteria prepared for injection into a patient to stimulate development of active immunity to that strain and against similar bacteria.