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9th International Conference & Exhibition on Bacteriology & Antibiotics, will be organized around the theme “Expanding New Horizons in Advances of Bacteriology & Antibiotics”
Bacteriology 2022 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Bacteriology 2022
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Prokaryotes are classified in to two categories namely Archea and Bacteria. The difference between two ispeptidogly can layer and N-formyl methionine. The study of domain bacteria is known as Bacteriology. Bacteria which is not visible to the naked eye is found everywhere in the environment. Bacteriology includes bacteria classification, parasitology, epidemiology, infections caused by bacteria, exotoxins of gram-positive bacteria, endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria, genetics and ecology of bacteria. Over past decades Bacteriology research has advanced rapidly.
A Few Biochemical/Physiological Properties Used for identification of bacteria include: nutrient utilization (carbohydrate utilization, amino acid degradation, lipid degradation), resistance to inhibitory substances (high salt, antibiotics, etc.), enzyme production (catalase, coagulase, hemolysins, etc.) and motility. Biochemical tests are used to identify bacterial species by differentiating them on the basis of biochemical activities. The difference in protein and fat metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme production, compound utilization ability, etc. are some factors that aid in bacterial identification.
Currently, bacterial sequencing has a profound impact on the field of genomics. Based on the short gun sequencing approach the sequences of Lepto spirilum, H. influenza is available on biological databases. This deals with hereditary information about bacteria, theta replication, transcription Genome information assists in Linkage mapping and genetic mapping. Genomics of bacteria also includes phenomenon like Pleiotropy, epistasis. Colonization of bacteria is based on Virulence factors, currently, genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas were available for genome sequencing of bacteria.
Public Health microbiology may be a speciality which spans the fields of human, animal, food, water and environmental microbiology, with attention on human health and disease. Public Health microbiology supports the monitoring of known and developing pressures and facilitates the calculation of effective interventions. Public Health Microbiology may be a highly interdisciplinary field that features anyone committed the microorganisms and infectious diseases that impact human health. it's an enormous area comprised of researchers, physicians, laboratorians, epidemiologists, environmental scientists, veterinarians, biostatisticians, and too more specialists to call. This breadth of specialties is important because public health microbiology encompasses every aspect of communicable disease in humans, from diagnosis and treatment to prevention and protection. This also implies that fields like Clinical Microbiology, Food Microbiology, Water Microbiology and Environmental Microbiology exist entirely or partially within the scope of Public Health Microbiology.
Bacterial vaccines contain killed or attenuated bacteria that activate the immune system. Antibodies are built against that particular bacteria, and prevents bacterial infection later. An example of a bacterial vaccine is the Tuberculosis vaccine
Types of Bacterial Vaccines
Bacterial vaccines can be classified into different groups – that is, toxoids, subunit vaccines, killed whole cell vaccines, and live attenuated vaccines.
A bacterial infection is a proliferation of a harmful strain of bacteria on or inside the body. Bacteria can infect any area of the body. Pneumonia, meningitis, and food poisoning are just a few illnesses that may be caused by harmful bacteria. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms. They’re very diverse, coming in a variety of different shapes and sizes. Bacteria can be found in all sorts of environments, including soil, bodies of water, and in or on our bodies. Some can survive extreme temperatures or even radiation exposure Trusted Source. However, sometimes bacteria can enter our bodies and cause an infection. Some examples of bacterial infections include: Strep throat, syphilis, tuberculosis, whooping cough, Cholera, botulism, tetanus, anthrax.
It is a combination of many topics like food preservation, food spoilage, molecular food, fermented food technology, brewing microbiology. Bacteria metabolism shows the impact on food odour, colour, taste, pH changes, slime layer formation. In addition to pathogenic bacteria, there are beneficial bacteria which boosts up an immune system like Probiotics, Prebiotics. Intake of adequate amounts of probiotic food confers good health. Probiotic bacteria include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium boosts the immune system.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease. This session focuses on the bacteria that are pathogenic to humans. Most species of bacteria are harmless and are often beneficial but others can cause infectious diseases. The number of these pathogenic species in humans is estimated to be fewer than a hundred. Bacteria cause many common infections such as pneumonia, wound infections, bloodstream infections (sepsis) and sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea, and have also been responsible for several major disease epidemics.
The primary mission of the clinical bacteriology laboratory is to assist the health care provider in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Due to the variety of specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory, many of the steps related to the processing and workup of a specimen have remained manual. The specimen is inoculated onto an agar medium (with plating protocols typically driven by the source of the specimen), the plates transferred manually to an incubator, the plates removed after a defined period of time and the culture examined by a technologist to look for potential pathogens. The cost of healthcare in many countries and the Affordable Care Act in the United States are collectively driving institutions to explore new and novel ways to provide continuous, quality care in a more affordable, efficient fashion. One of those options to enhance efficiency and affordability is automation.
Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa. This discipline includes fundamental research on the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of microorganisms, including the host response to these agents. Microbiologists study microbes, and some of the most important discoveries that have underpinned modern society have resulted from the research of famous microbiologists, such as Jenner and his vaccine against smallpox, Fleming and the discovery of penicillin, Marshall and the identification of the link between Helicobacter pylori infection and stomach ulcers, and zur Hausen, who identified the link between papilloma virus and cervical cancer.
Antibiotics are chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria and are used to treat bacterial infections. They are produced in nature by soil bacteria and fungi. This gives the microbe an advantage when competing for food and water and other limited resources in a particular habitat, as the antibiotic kills off their competition. Antibiotics take advantage of the difference between the structure of the bacterial cell and the host’s cell. They can prevent the bacterial cells from multiplying so that the bacterial population remains the same, allowing the host’s defence mechanism to fight the infection or kill the bacteria, for example stopping the mechanism responsible for building their cell walls. An antibiotic can also be classified according to the range of pathogens against which it is effective. Penicillin G will destroy only a few species of bacteria and is known as a narrow spectrum antibiotic. Tetracycline is effective against a wide range of organisms and is known as a broad spectrum antibiotic.
Bacteria are termed drug-resistant when they are no longer inhibited by an antibiotic to which they were previously sensitive. The emergence and spread of antibacterial-resistant bacteria has continued to grow due to both the over-use and misuse of antibiotics. Treating a patient with antibiotics causes the microbes to adapt or die; this is known as ‘selective pressure’. If a strain of a bacterial species acquires resistance to an antibiotic, it will survive the treatment. As the bacterial cell with acquired resistance multiplies, this resistance is passed on to its offspring. In ideal conditions some bacterial cells can divide every 20 minutes; therefore after only 8 hours in excess of 16 million bacterial cells carrying resistance to that antibiotic could exist.
A few harmful microbes, for example less than 1% of bacteria, can invade our body (the host) and make us ill. Microbes cause infectious diseases such as flu and measles. There is also strong evidence that microbes may contribute to many non–infectious chronic diseases such as some forms of cancer and coronary heart disease. Different diseases are caused by different types of micro-organisms. Microbes that cause disease are called pathogens.
Medical microbiologists are pathologists who diagnose and treat infectious diseases. They study pathogens: organisms that cause disease, such as viruses, fungi or bacteria. Microbiologists perform tests to find out which antibiotics will be most useful in stopping an infection. Different bacteria are sensitive to different antibiotics, so pathologists ensure the correct antibiotic is prescribed. Microbiologists also play an important role in infection control, preventing infection passing from one patient to another in hospitals and the community. Many of the most common infections are caused by viruses and bacteria. Viral diseases include: common cold, influenza, hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Bacterial diseases include: tuberculosis, salmonella (food poisoning), tetanus and chlamydia.
It deals with many disciplines such as Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering. Synthetic biology laid down the path for making of biosensors, synthetic DNA, synthetic transcription factors, bio-computers, industrial enzymes, mass spectrometry. It concerns about design and construction of components like genetic circuits, metabolic pathways etc. Metabolic profiling, Large-scale integration, quantitative and integrative proteomics is designed based on the systems biology.
Antibiotics are those which act against the growth of infectious organisms. Antimicrobials, antibacterial fall under this. Antibacterial may be either bacteriostat or bacteriocidal. Bacteriostat is those which inactivates the organism and retards the growth whereas bactericidal completely kills the organism. Antibiotics which acts on the specific bacterial group were named as narrow spectrum and those which shows activity against two groups i.e. positive and negative bacteria are named as broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Bacteria are used to produce organic acids, amino acids, industrial enzymes, amino glycosides ,beta-lactam antibiotics. In diary industry, brewing industry bacteria helps to fermentation. Bacteria produce secondary metabolites during the stationary growth phase which have great potential in industries.
It deals with pathogens that effects the plants, plant-bacteria interactions, bio fertilizers. Some bacteria fix nitrogen to the root nodules. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used as a natural genetic tool to insert the plasmid. Phyto bacteriology focuses mainly on taxonomy and pathogenicity factors. Recent research on phyto bacteriology includes the antagonistic activity of microorganism against bacterial infections, intracellular bacteria liberobacter, nucleation of bacteria in the active bundles of plants, nonparasitic rhizobacterium.
Immunity is of two types namely innate and adaptive immunity. Humans immune system produces micro-inflammation against host invading body. Immunogenetics deals with the study of the interrelation of autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases. Based on previous studies on skin infections it has been found that bacteria is cause for hypersensitivity reactions. The effect of the pathogen on host depends upon the virulence factors. Bacteria acts as an antigen to the human immune system and bacterial peptides undergo exocytosis get attached to MHC-II.