Emerging Infectious Diseases

Occupational epidemiology is of great importance in clinical epidemiology and of occupational hygiene since it provides powerful and good information to understand the causes and determinants of work related ill-health, to help establish what steps should be taken to reduce occupational risks, and to evaluate interventions for the benefits of workers, and of the community in a bigger manner. Many organisms live in and on our bodies which are normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person.

It introduces the basic methods for infectious disease epidemiology and case studies of important disease syndromes, bacterial Infection and entities. Methods include definitions and nomenclature, outbreak investigations, disease surveillance, case-control studies, cohort studies, laboratory diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, dynamics of transmission, and assessment of vaccine field effectiveness. Case-studies focus on acute respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, hepatitis, HIV, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, and other vector-borne diseases. The IDD market is poised to reach $18,156.2 million by 2019 from $12,422.8 million in 2014, at a CAGR of 7.9% from 2014 to 2019.

Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals. Of the 11 species that colonize humans, only two are pathogens, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Most gonoccocal infections are asymptomatic and self-resolving, and epidemic strains of the meningococcus may be carried in >95% of a population where systemic disease occurs at <1% prevalence.

Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs. Meningitis can be life threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord. The common symptoms are headache and neck stiffness associated with fever, confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light (photophobia) or loud noises (phonophobia).There are about 464,000 deaths in 1990 and 303,000 deaths in 2013.

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