Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that alters the urinary system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. The causative of the infection is a bacteria called Escherichia coli. Composition of urine is salts, fluids and waste produces, but does not usually have bacteria in it. Bacteria inflowing the bladder or kidney can multiply rapidly in the urine, causing a UTI (urinary tract infection). Cystitis is the most common type of UTI and mostoftenly referred to as a bladder infection. A kidney infection, also known as pyelonephritis is potentially more serious.

Infections of the bladder and/or urethra are known as lower urinary tract infections; if it occurs in the kidneys or ureters they are known as upper urinary tract infections. In general, urinary tract infections are simply and effectively treated with a short course of antibiotics. However, infection can cause uneasiness, to the patient suffering pain at the time of urination, a frequent desire to urinate, and cloudy urine. Women are more likely than men to have a UTI. This is because in women the urethra is nearer to the anus than it is in men, which makes it easier for bacteria to get from the anus to the urethra. In women the urethra is also much shorter than it is in men, making it easier for bacteria to contact the bladder. Antibiotics are used to treat UTIs. The majority cases of UTIs clear up after a few days of drug treatment, although more severe cases may require few weeks of treatment. Guidelines recommend using nitrofurantoin or trimethoprin-sulfamethoxazole as first-line antibiotic treatments for UTIs. Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin) are now only recommended when other antibiotics are not appropriate.

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